The EyeEm photo community chose the best photographer of the year and the winners are split into five categories: “Architecture”, “Outdoors”, “Photojournalist”, “Portraitist” and “Street photographer” for the 4th consecutive year. This time, the photo contest broke its own records by the number of participants: more than 590,000 works from more than 88,000 photographers from around the world. This year, the main winner is the 19-year-old Sasha Dudkina from Moscow.
The Moldovan photographer as well as part of the Reportaje.Moldova.org team – Ramin Mazur, 30 – won with the title of “Photojournalist”.
Here are some of the works from Ramin’s “The Process” series, documenting the production of Hamlet in prison.
In Moldova, one of the highest per capita prison population in Europe has the highest long-term convicts. In order to shed light on the problems of the penitentiary system, the art center “Colosseum” staged a play in the country’s safest prison. Within a few months the prisoners studied the art of acting. Some of them have spent more than half their life behind bars. Through this production, the directors Mihai Fusu and Luminita Tika wanted to draw attention to the living conditions of the country, to the penitentiary system and, most importantly, to stereotypes.
More photos from the series:
Moldova through the eyes of a European immigrant: Marc Pilkington talks about politics, culture and diaspora// INTERVIEW
Marc Pilkington is an Associate Professor of Economics at the COMUE, University of Burgundy Franche Comté, France, where he was appointed in 2012. Between 2015 and 2017, he was on entrepreneurial leave in the Republic of Moldova. His business venture Moldova Tours 2.0 lies at the intersection between tourism growth, poverty alleviation and digital technologies. He has written two books and numerous articles in peer-reviewed journals.
A: Could you tell me more about what brought you here?
M: I’m half French, half British and, before coming to Moldova, I was associate professor of economics at a French public university. A few years ago, I wanted to learn Romanian, for no special reasons: I liked the language and wanted to learn it in Romania, so I went to Brasov and did a summer course there. My first contact with Moldova was 10 years ago. I was teaching in Nice, in the South of France, and I had a few students from Moldova. At the time, I didn’t even know where Moldova was, I was curious. I just went there after my trip to Romania. I tried not to go on Google or get information from other people, I wanted to get my own impressions. Without much research, I must say I heard people say that “Moldova is a very poor country, poorest in the Europe, etc.” My first experience in Chisinau was, actually, kind of a good surprise. I like your country very much. At the time, my Romanian was very bad compared to what it is now, so people tried to help me out. When I first got to Moldova in 2015, your country was voted the least visited country in Europe. It’s rather sad that people don’t visit it, considering the fact that you have a nice country and nice people. I thought, why not go to Moldova, open a little company and try to make something with tourism? I feel like it’s not so explored, although it has a lot of potential. Even if I failed, I would benefit from the experience of living in a different country. Just before leaving, I answered a call for papers to contribute to a book focusing on technology and globalization. In fact, what I did was submit a proposal for what I had in mind back then, the idea that one can only improve tourism in Moldova if one uses technology. It’s because today, we’re living in a kind of platform-based world, with the social media. I think it’s a good idea to try to use technology and promote the country like that.
This was my whole reflection on Tourism 2.0. It’s getting people to interact, to contribute, to generate content, to share photos, ideas and experiences. If you go to travel agency websites, sometimes – you do find nice websites, with nice photos, etc.. But if people don’t know anything about Moldova, even if it looks nice, they will not go there. I remember very well, my feeling when I wanted to go for the first time. I was a bit impressed, because my language skills were not very good. It’s a bit of a mysterious country, it used to be part of the Soviet Union. All these post soviet countries are very interesting. Coming to Eastern Europe is like a discovery, it’s nothing like Austria or Switzerland. I was surprised, because it wasn’t that difficult to be in Moldova. People were nice, I could see that they had problems… I wouldn’t like to talk about all their problems, but life was tough, Moldova has a lot of poverty, a lot of corruption – these are the big issues. But in spite of that, people are trying to do something. Also, when you’re a foreigner, you’re being treated very nicely. I’m sad to say this, but most people in the world do not know where Moldova is. It’s not because they’re stupid, it’s because there isn’t a lot of communication, and this is the big problem with Moldova. Every time there is communication in the media – it is to highlight the problems. If you want me to list all the problems with Moldova, I’ll unfortunately write a very long list.
For us, foreigners being in Moldova is like an adventure. A lot of people who go to Moldova for the first time do it because they have a friend there. I think there could be psychological aspects for Moldovan people to overcome in order to attract tourists to Moldova. You have to show them the good things first; not just the problems, not just the corruption, not just the banking scandals, but also the culture, the traditions, etc.. That’s my general perspective about your country.
A: Can you briefly describe what each of the Moldova Tours 2.0 perspective tours offer within their activities?
M: What I was thinking was that everybody has their own reasons to go to Moldova. For example, the monastery tours would be for people interested in religious tourism. You have very nice monasteries in Moldova. One can take a whole week to just do this. Most people don’t just go to a country in order to visit a monastery. I think it was a good thing to divide tours in such a way, because I knew there would be people interested in them. For example, I was approached by a company in Pakistan. A Christian group of people with a travel agency in Pakistan. They wanted to send me some customers, because they do religious tourism in countries like Turkey, Jordan, Egypt, etc.. Moldova would be a whole new market for them. And then, there are people interested in wine. The French region where I come from, Burgundy, is very famous for wine. I must say I’m very impressed by the quality of the Moldovan wine. Then, you have the corporate tours. That’s for business men, for potential investors and so you need to organize something which is very suitable for them. I like the idea of the social business tours very much. A lot of people want to go to Moldova with some kind of NGO perspective. They know there are a lot of problems and so they want to help.
Most people are not going to be interested in doing one thing for a week, so that’s what the perspective tours offer. You go to Moldova for the first time and then, you could have a mix of everything. It’s funny, 2 days ago I received an E-mail from somebody in Florida, and I thought that was crazy, because they wanted to travel all the way from Florida, just to visit one monastery near Nisporeni. I thought that was crazy! Why would you come all the way up here and only want to see one thing?
Another thing I am exploring right now, and I believe has a lot of potential, is developing Russian teaching combined with tourism. One reason is because Moldova is nice and most people don’t know about it, and the other one is because it is, actually, very cheap. Moldovan people complain that there is no money, that everything is expensive, and it’s true, because the salaries are very low here. Now, if you come from the Netherlands with a very good purchasing power, you’ll find Moldova extremely cheap, compared to other destinations.
Moldova has very good doctors as well. I’ve spoken to people, and I know that the dental care you can get in Moldova would be the same as what you can get in France or Germany, but four times cheaper. It’s another thing you can think about.
A: Could you explain what is the role of Blockchain for Tourism 2.0, in easy terms?
M: That is a very important question. Blockchain is an area of interest, it’s something I have researched and published articles about. It’s really something very large that I’m interested in. At first, it all started with Bitcoin. It’s not just about Bitcoin, it’s about the technology behind Bitcoin. A British guy currently staying in Moldova has a big project here. In fact, he had a very successful experience on a Greek island about 2 years ago. There was a big turmoil in Greece, people were talking about the exit from the European Union. Finally, they saw the problems, but it was a big mess. So what he did, he went to a Greek island and introduced the cryptocurrency based on blockchain through just tourism – as an experiment. This cryptocurrency would be accepted by hotels, restaurants, tourism service providers, and there would be no fee. People would save money thanks to this cryptographic technology… You could transfer money without paying the fee. You pay very high fees when you transfer by credit card, for instance, when you travel abroad. This guy obtained a very good result on this island, where he introduced the blockchain-based currency. You need two things: you need people to work together as a coherent ecosystem, and this is exactly what tourism is about. Nowadays, you just have individual and separated elements. There are hotels, restaurants, guides, travel agencies. Everybody is working separately. If you could introduce a crypto-token – which would be accepted as a parallel currency – this could redefine tourism and, it would bring a lot of media exposure. There would be people that would come to Moldova because they’re curious. For example, a lot of people travelled to the island where the clip ‘Despacito’ was filmed (editor’s note: Porto Rico) – just because of the popularity on the internet. I’m not saying we should be superficial all the time, but sometimes you have to play with the marketing trends, the social media, so that you can create some kind of novelty. I think it would be interesting for people. The only people who go to Moldova nowadays either have a friend there, or are a bit adventurous, curious.
A lot of people interested in History come to Moldova as well. Moldova has a very rich history. There are settlements in the North of Moldova, and these settlements come
from one of the oldest civilizations that has ever existed in Europe, the Cucuteni civilization, around 7000 years ago. This civilization was, in fact, extremely advanced. I know someone who was doing her PhD in archeology, and she excavated some remnants of this ancient civilization. Those were very intelligent people, the most advanced, considering the level of technology they had at the time. The way this civilization disappeared is very mysterious as well. It’s a bit like in the Bible, there could have been a natural disaster, a catarstrophe – it’s very unclear under which circumstances this civilization disappeared.
Click here for more about the Cucuteni civilization.
It’s not just the 20th century and the Soviet Union that attract tourists interested in history. A lot happened in the Middle ages as well, or around the Stefan cel Mare time. It is a very deep belief to me, that a lot of Moldovans are very critical about their own countries because of all the political problems. Most of the time are not aware of their own heritage, their culture. Surprisingly to me, a lot of Moldovans haven’t even visited their own country. On my second day in Moldova, I was in Tipova. Talking to some people later who’ve lived in Moldova forever, and they told me they’d never been to Tipova. And it’s a very nice place in your country. How can you promote your country if you don’t know it too well?
A: I’d like to talk more about poverty and corruption in Moldova. What way do you believe in, that would get Moldova to consolidate the rule of law? What “propels judicial nihilism and corruption in Moldovan society?”
M: May I ask what you’re studing in the Netherlands?
A: It’s called Interactive/Media/Design, a conceptual art-related subject.
M: So you’re not a law student. The question you asked me is very difficult. How could we consolidate, strengthen the rule of law? You said it very well, Moldova is a very young country – 26-27 years old, the problem you have in Moldova is the same problem a lot of transition economies have: high levels of corruption. One could find the same problems in a lot of similar economies. With more economic grouth, with more economic prosperity – there would be less corruption. But this is only in the long term, so the question is, how could we improve the situation in the short term at least, knowing that it’s a difficult problem, because corruption in Moldova is a big problem. You asked a question about Blockchain, and I should’ve added something. Blockchain has some applications for the e-government, and also, more transparency in everything: for public services, in public life etc. What I think Moldova needs is more transparency about politicians. They have vested interests, and it could be that blockchain technologies could help out here. Say, you use blockchain for publicizing information related to politicians, especially politicians involved in previous elections, and see if they have any potential conflict of interest. You could see, for example, if they have a contract with a big company. One could use digital technologies, like blockchain, to generate more transparency. It would be a step in the right direction. I see that a lot of people vote for politicians for very superficial reasons. And this is what happened last year, in 2016 – people being disappointed with the EU movement and decided to look backwards, up to the Russian standards. If people reflected more upon this, they would understand it’s not as simple as it seems. People need to create a more transparent environment and know exactly who they’re voting for – the ideas they are going to present in the parliament.
A: I’m not sure whether you’ve read “Society of the spectacle” by Guy Debord, but he wrote a lot about the political spectacle, comparing the authorities to some sort of ‘pseudo-stars.’ He said “The spectacle exists in a concentrated form and diffuse form depending on the requirements of the particular stage of poverty it denies and supports.”
Unquestionably, the Moldovan authorities manipulate people in any way they can. If you agree with that, what is the reason this whole spectacle is happening? Why have people become hopeless and inactive in what comes to being part of a community and fighting for a better country?
M: Thank you for this question. One of my best friends who I’m collaborating with for this project, is a journalist here. She told me, many times, that there isn’t really any independent journalism in Moldova. People have tried, and failed – because of the lack of financial resources. The media is politically controlled, and so a lot of people are extremely passive. A thing which is very sad about Moldova is the divide between people who live here and the diaspora. When you go abroad you get to interact with other cultures, other people – it opens your mind. A lot of people in Moldova have a very narrow mindset, and this is very easy to understand. They have a life which is very difficult, they may be making around €250 a month, so when they go back home in the evening – they’re tired, they have to look after their children, their household. They turn on the television – they don’t really have the energy, the strength to go further than that. I know there are some people who are trying to do this – people with a more critical perspective. These people should really be given credit for trying to open minds and eyes of the masses. Poverty turns it into an extremely slow process.
When I came to Moldova, about to establish myself, I’ve arrived on September 4th 2015, and 2 days later you had the biggest demonstration ever in the history of your country. Chisinau had more people on the streets than on Independence Day in 1991. I think it was around 100.000 people, and that was a big movement. Through the winter, there were big protests in front of the government building. I thought that, maybe, there was going to be a similar scenario – like you had in Ukraine, with Maidan. I thought people were going to revolt, rebel against the government. And what happened was… it faded away. Everything went back to normal. People were resigned, I think. People – they can’t just spend 6 months in a tent, in front of the parliament. They need money, they have children… It’s just an economic necessity that brought people back to where they were. In fact, I don’t think anything has really changed, the appearance perhaps – on the surface. And this is sad, people are victims of their own economic conditions. There was a nice window at some stage, for people who want to change society. But this window is not really effective. I’m glad it didn’t turn into a similar movement as in Ukraine, because what happened in Ukraine was very violent. There was bloodshed, and I did not see Moldova as a country like that. It’s a very divided country. You have Russian speaking people, Romanian speaking people… Turkish speaking people (editor’s note: Gagauz), and so on – but it’s not a violent country. I’m glad that in spite of the problems you had, you didn’t take the same route as Ukraine, because the situation hasn’t improved much in there ever since. What Moldovan people need is to get more education. Education is another big problem in Moldova. It needs better education, better paid teachers, so that people have a more constructive criticism about what is going on around them. It’s more of a long term thing.
Getting back to my topic – it’s very important for your country that more foreigners go there. Of course, tourists are going to bring money, but they’re also going to bring in ideas by interacting with the locals. That’s something that could really help your country.
A: What would be an advice you could give to the Moldovan diaspora as well as the people living in Moldova in order for them to contribute to the country they hope for?
M: There are lot of different people in diaspora. It isn’t one whole mindset. There is something I wrote in my papers: it is about the future of Moldova the diaspora has a key role to play in. Diaspora may be the most decisive force for the future of Moldova. We were talking about technologies. What diaspora has to do, is try and be more united, try to be better connected on a platform, and thus, better organized. Diaspora needs to have a voice in the domestic affairs.
Today, the diaspora isn’t very well represented. I don’t think the voice of diaspora is very powerful. Using a platform-based technology would get diaspora to speak with a common voice in a way that is more coherent and powerful. Right now, you have Moldovans living almost everywhere in the world. Every country has a consulate, an embassy, and there is a need of organizing everything at an international level. I like Moldova.org a lot. I think you are doing something in the right direction. The platform you have is, in fact, a very powerful instrument. What you do – you are trying to inform people. My objective is trying to arouse interest about Moldova as a first step and bringing people to Moldova as a second step. It may sound like a foundation, but my project contains a private component, which is business, or profit-oriented. It’s ambitious, because it’s a big project, but I like to be optimistic, regardless of the problems and difficulties.
Access the Moldova Tours 2.0 website here.
Historic protests in Romania: are there any lessons for the Republic of Moldova? By Irina Staver and Marc Pilkington
Can the Blockchain Help Fight off Corruption in Developing Countries? The Case of the Republic of Moldova.
Interview with an experienced pilot: The fear of flying// VIDEO
Although planes are the safest means of transport, many of us are afraid of flying. Mihai Botnari, a pilot with 21 years of experience at Air Moldova, dismantles all the fears of flying. How worrying is the turbulence? What happens if a bird hits the engine? Or a lightning strike? What does an old plane represent?
Maia Sandu: If the electoral system is not changed, the Democratic Party will probably not enter next Parliament /INTERVIEW
Moldova, at its teenage years, the uninominal vote system, fight with the corruption, future plans. This is what we discussed with the leader of the Action and Solidarity Party, Maia Sandu.
- Mrs. Maia Sandu, how would you describe the Republic of Moldova in its current state?
– The Republic of Moldova is a country in the teenage years and thus, tries to find its own path of development. We are a young democracy and “democracy” is probably too much said, but at least we are trying to find the path of freedom, to build institutions that, in time, would become strong and sustainable to ensure and preserve those citizen liberties. Obviously, we want to have a prosperous country, but we are far from there.
- Teenage means revolt. Is Moldova a rebel or it can wait more?
– In some circumstances, it is rebel. We see that there is still a spirit that tries to oppose some desires of politicians to impose control and more autocracy, but it is not sufficiently rebel. Many of our rebel people, instead of trying to ask for change, decided to go abroad. I don’t necessarily say that it is a bad thing, but this critical mass of people that would be able to put pressure for a change for better is way too small, smaller than if these people were home.
- If we continue the teenage theme, who are the parents of this teenager?
– It is hard to tell who are the parents of this teenager. I believe that we cannot wait to have parents to take care of us. Those who can help us will help only when they see that we are serious and that we want this change. I am talking about countries and governments that understand how important is it for the entire world to develop harmoniously, because we are in an on-going process of globalization. Every country can cause crises that could become regional or even international ones. That is why it is important for the entire world to prosper. From this perspective, there are more governments that understand how important it is to help each other. At the same time, nobody will come to force us and tell us how things are done, what path we should take. We can be helped only when we can prove that we really want this thing, and we did not. When I say “we”, I am referring to a sufficiently big number of people and especially, those from the government, because they take decisions for us.
Candu should start this fight from the PD ministers
- The fight against corruption is an usual topic in Moldova, but the investigation journalists are convinced that corruption is at home at high levels. If the government is not an example, who can we learn from?
– When the corruption is spread everywhere, it is hard to go against the system. The things can be changed through two methods. One is the power of example and education, two is the system of sanctioning. Now, the education system regards the responsibility of the parents and school. We should tell this straight: we see no results from neither of them. The sanctioning system comes from the law enforcement institutions. In order to overturn this situation, we need to start fighting against the big corruption. When we will prove that the people, involved in the big corruption acts, with dramatic impact over the society, are punished, then we will be credible, in order to start the fight against corruption at all levels.
We started the fight against corruption in education, but when we were conducting that fight, one billion US dollars disappeared from the banking system. Obviously, in that situation, we fully lost our credibility. How can you ask disappointed people, that get non-formal payments because they cannot survive with the very small salary offered by the state, when such disgusting things happen around the leadership of the country?
We start with sanctioning those involved in major cases of corruption, save money from these actions, increase the salaries and ask all levels to respect the laws, then we sanction those involved in small corruption.
On the educational dimension, we should persevere, each of us at his own place, parent, professor, to make a good example for the children. Only when he sees that the parents, the professors do not commit these kind of things, only then (he/she) would understand that (he/she) must do the same.
- If we talk about corruption, one remembers the draft law proposed by the Parliament speaker Andrian Candu on the implementation of lunch tickets as a solution against the non-formal salaries that caused an exchange of remarks between you and mr. Candu…
In my opinion, when you have a corrupt government, the best is to keep a simple system. As Americans say- Keep it simple. The moment you start to invent all kinds of elements like these tickets, a new opportunity for corruption opens. In general, I find it ridiculous that the Parliament speaker thinks these lunch tickets are a method of fighting with the non-formal salaries. Are we supposed to understand that, from now on, they will pay the salaries through lunch tickets, medicine tickets transport tickets, cinema tickets? Is this the solution for fighting the non-formal salaries? If we are serious about this, I would recommend Candu to start this fight from the ministers of the Democratic Party. Because, even during the time I was in the Government, there were rumors that some PD ministers received their salaries in envelopes.
“Adopt a vote” offline
- One month ago, a part of the Facebook group “Adopt a vote”, most of it from diaspora, met in Venice, where they discussed the major problems the Republic of Moldova faces and adopted a resolution…
I was enormously happy to learn that the Moldovan diaspora started to organize itself. I think it is the first attempt of the diaspora to speak in one voice. Let’s not forget that, for several years, it has economically supported the Republic of Moldova. We can’t imagine our GDP without the remittances our Moldovan diaspora sends. The letters that the Government sends to the International Monetary Fund always contain the complaint that the remittances are reducing- “this means that we need compensations from the foreign donors”. If the diaspora is so important and the money it sends are comparable to the money the foreign donors provide, why can’t the diaspora ask for conditions n exchange for the enormous support it gives to the development of the country? Finally, the authorities got this conditionality message. Let’s see how they fulfill this promise.
Where did Maia Sandu disappear
- A lot of people consider that you disappeared from the light of cameras, that you are passive, that you easily gave up after the announcement of the elections results. What is happening?
I disappeared from the light of cameras, because the cameras are not upon us. The situation was different in the campaign. Yes, we took a break after the Presidential elections, because the efforts were huge. During this campaign, we had only volunteers and no employees. These people worked 24/24 for free, for several months, and had to search for a job after this. People cannot work for free. We should be realists and understand how things are.
In the winter months, we took a tour through the rural places, we concentrated on the party construction, on identifying people to represent us in each locality. We were not seen, because we did not take the television with us in each village. We’ve been to 30-40 villages, in the weekend, because the locals were busy. We will continue this furthermore- building the party, consolidating the team. We want to raise local and national level leaders and this implies a lot of training.
We were less visible in the dialogue on national level. Now we are back and we are trying to send other messages, but, unfortunately, the government does not take them in account. It is more of a monologue.
“We are ready for every situation”
- In case the uninominal electoral system is passed, will you manage to consolidate your team, to make it strong and visible until the next elections? So far, PAS is only Maia Sandu. At least, this is what one can see.
I want to remind you that PAS is a young party, Maia Sandu is in the public eye since 2012. PAS turns one year in May 2017 and it is natural that it is less known that me. That is why we have the objective to make the image transfer from me to the party, to identify, help and promote all PAS leaders from the regions. We are ready for every situation, but we are conscious that the electoral system change, as the Democratic Party wants it, opens new opportunities for the government, especially for PD, to defraud the elections. We oppose this change, because it doesn’t have the goal to consolidate the democratic process or the increase in representation. It has one objective- to allow them to manipulate and maintain the power. If the electoral system is not changed, the Democratic Party will probably not enter the next Parliament. Thus, we set a goal to become a strong party and obviously be ready for every situation.
- During your visits in the regions, did you find the potential candidates from PAS for the possible single-member district elections?
We are not searching for potential deputies. We are searching for people to participate in the political process and to help us in building a party. We have a correct policy towards the promotion of people in positions, within the party and in public offices. We have a register of the candidates, where people register, where there are certain rules for applying for a public position. This is the register of party members, but this doesn’t mean that we are not open for those outside PAS. Our policy is to promote the best people in public positions. Each candidate submits a CV, then we get some recommendations and then we launch a contest. First of all, they need to prove their integrity, we then measure their professionalism and measure their contribution to the party activities. Depending on these criteria, that we will publish soon because the mechanism is still under discussion, we will choose people that deserve to be candidates for some positions.
Author: Ana Gherciu
VIDEO (Romanian- English subtitles under development):
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