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The Socialist Federalization Plan Is Just as Bad for Moldova as the Kozak Plan

This opinion piece was written by Dr. Ionas Aurelian Rus, Associate Professor of Political Science at the University of Cincinnati Blue Ash College (USA). The opinion does not necessarily represent the opinion of the editorial staff of Moldova.org.

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The federalization plan of the Party of Socialists of the Republic of Moldova, supported by Moldovan President Igor Dodon, may be found on the party’s website. Unfortunately, the content of this plan is not known by enough people. Almost all of the information below may be found in the Socialist and other public sources, and the rest of the information comes from Western, especially American, interceptions, of Russian internal communications. It is not the fault of the author of this article if what Dodon said was misunderstood by the Russian authorities.

As is typical in federal states, the legislature of a potential federal Moldova, discussed in Article 5 of the Socialist plan, is bicameral, composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The reason why the names of the two chambers of the US Congress have been chosen is likely to increase the chances that the U.S. authorities would be neutral to this plan. The order in which the two chambers are discussed in the Socialist plan is, however, different from that in the American constitution. The Senate is discussed before the House of Representatives, because the intent is that the Senate should be more powerful in the “Moldovan Federal Republic”.

The intent is that the Senate should be composed of 27 members, compared to 26 members in the 2003 Kozak Plan, which Moldova’s Communist president Vladimir Voronin refused to sign after initialing it due to societal opposition. According to the Socialist plan, “The number of senators from each of the subjects of the federation is determined by the need to ensure a proper representation in the legislative branch of the of power in the federation, irrespective of the size of the territory of the federation’s subject.” Although it was not included in the plan, and is only known from the interception of Russian internal communications, Transnistria will have 10 senators and Gagauzia 4. In other words, the two regions will have a majority in the Senate (14 out of 27 members). According to the Kozak plan, the 9 senators representing Transnistria and the 4 from Gagauzia represented exactly half of the 26 senators. Therefore, from this point of view, Dodon’s plan is worse for the majority population of the Republic of Moldova than the Kozak Plan. Senators are to be elected by the legislatures of (smaller) Moldova, Transnistria and Gagauzia, not by the population. It was the same way in the United States until 1913, or better, until the senators began to be elected directly by the voters, a third in 1914, a third in 1916 and a third in 1918. Before this change, when the legislatures of the states chose the senators, the system was corrupt.

In the Transnistrian separatist census of 2015, Transnistria had 475,000 inhabitants, of which 28.5% self-identified as Moldovans, 29.1% as Russians, and 22.9% as Ukrainians. Probably no linguistic statistics will appear, but most of the population of Transnistria is Russophone. In Gagauzia, with 104,449 inhabitants, 95.3% of the population is made up of ethnic minorities, including 83.8% Gagauz, according to the Moldovan census of 2014. In the rest of the Republic of Moldova, there were 2,409,034 inhabitants at the last census, more than 86% from the majority population. In conclusion, the 19.38% of the inhabitants of Transnistria and Gagauzia will be represented by the majority of the Senate according to the Socialist plan.

Both the composition of the cabinet of ministers and that of the Supreme Court and the Constitutional Court, which will immediately have a new composition, will be proposed by the president and will have to be approved by the Senate and only by the Senate. Moreover, one may find in point 8.4 that “the Federal Constitutional Court is to be created on a parity basis, in accordance with the principle of equal rights of the subjects in defense of their rights.” According to the Kozak Plan, of 11 members of the Constitutional Court, only four were to be appointed by the Supreme Soviet of Transnistria and one of the Gagauz legislature. Therefore, in the Socialist plan, the regions with separatist tendencies would be favored more than in the Kozak Plan. Such a Constitutional Court will probably not stop Dodon’s dictatorial tendencies, but will approve them.

Nowhere in the plan is it written that the “Moldovan language” will use the Latin alphabet, and Dodon in fact promised the return to the Cyrillic alphabet. In fact, the “Moldovan language” will use both Latin and Cyrillic alphabets. Although it is not written in the plan, Russian will become the second official language, something that was not included in the Kozak Plan, but was publicly mentioned by Dodon. There is nothing written about the withdrawal of Russian troops from Transnistria. The Transnistrian armed forces will be maintained for a while. They will include many soldiers, many of whom are currently in the Russian army.

Although it is not written in the public version of the plan, the Constitution of the Republic of Moldova will be canceled and replaced with Dodon’s federalization plan after the signing of an agreement between the leaders of the Republic of Moldova and Transnistria, with Russia’s approval and US neutrality, without the EU or Ukraine if they will oppose it, and will be guaranteed by the Russian Federation. Of course, this will only be possible if the Socialists will get a majority in parliament in 2018, but this majority will not have to be three-fifths or two-thirds, because this is not about amending the constitution but replacing it.

The plan does not indicate that the population will have the right to vote if they approve the plan or not. The Kozak Plan mentioned the approval of the plan through a referendum. It is possible that a referendum will take place throughout the Republic of Moldova, but this is not mentioned in the plan. In addition, this referendum may be fraudulent. The Central Electoral Commission is not mentioned in the federalization plan.

Dodon relies on the neutrality of the Western diplomats against such plans. It is hard to say whether he is right or not. However, Dodon’s federalization plans must be combatted massively, intensively and totally. The victory of the pro-Western or declared pro-Western forces in the parliamentary elections, i.e., without the Party of Socialists of the Republic of Moldova, the Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova and Our Party, would guarantee the avoidance of federalization.

In conclusion, the Socialist plans for federalization are a clear and immediate danger. Dodon’s plans are at least as bad as the Kozak Plan.

Currently studying International Relations at the University of Pécs, Hungary. Study focus: Transnistrian conflict settlement, Moldovan statehood, Moldovan democracy. Inquiries at [email protected]

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Weekly Roundup: Kozak is back, EU Council concerned about Moldova, Shor threatens with a belt

The Weekly Roundup is back after a two weeks break. Sorry about that, the world outside the window was more attractive to the editor that the news in Moldova.


Protests of the opposition continue: The pro-European extra-Parliamentary opposition parties, united under the ACUM Committee, continue their protests in Chișinău, asking for the validation of the Chișinău mayor election results and the reform of the electoral law for the Parliamentary elections which are expected to take place after 30 November this year, but before February 2019.


Protests against the opposition: Infamous banker, businessman, and Orhei mayor, Ilan Shor, gathered his supporters this week in front of the office of PAS party. Shor and his fellas condemned the declarations of the Liberal-Democrats and opposition leaders Maia Sandu and Andrei Năstase, who suggested Shor’s so-called “social shops” should be regarded as tools to launder the latter from the image of the “billion thief”.

Dionis Cenușa argues in an opinion piece that Shor’s protest is just an attempt to get public attention ahead of the Parliamentary elections and to hit the opposition leader Maia Sandu who criticized him for being the “architect of the billion theft”. His 80 (or so) social shops represent tools to use the poor, aged electorate in his penal and political cases.

Shor went further by threatening Sandu and Năstase with a belt in a Facebook video but also promising “lustration” to “every journalist” who “wrote bad things” about this protests. We can ignore the high price of the belt- Shor was and is known to be rich enough-, but the threatening part is how he promises to use the belt- by slapping Sandu’s and Năstase’s buttocks. Funny or not, it is true:

The media NGOs already condemned Shor’s threats.


Liberal Democrats ask the Constitutional Court to step in: The Liberal-Democratic caucus in the Moldovan Parliament and one Liberal, MP Lilian Carp, asked the Constitutional Court to give its opinion on whether courts can issue decisions on electoral frauds when there are no legal provisions on a specific type of frauds, and whether courts can annul election results if they are not asked to.

The complaint comes after Andrei Năstase’s election as Chișinău mayor was canceled based on a complaint of his opponent to consider three Facebook videos in which Năstase calls on the voters to go out and vote for whoever they want as a deviation from the law.


EU Foreign Affairs Ministers concerned about the situation in Moldova: The EU’s Foreign Affairs Council underlined the need to step up reforms in governance, justice, the fight against corruption, economic reform and the business environment in the six Eastern Partnership countries, reports IPN.

The foreign ministers underlined “the need to step up reforms in areas such as governance, justice, the fight against corruption, economic reform and the business environment”, especially in Moldova.


The new IRI survey is out and it reveals interesting trends: Support for EU membership is slightly increasing, Moldovans are unsatisfied with the pace of change in the country, Dodon’s rating is stagnating (it’s summer though, the President spends more time for trips than for crises of trust in governmental institutions), Democrats are not doing well in polls.

More details and pictures in our article:

IRI Survey: 46% of Moldovans would vote for joining the European Union, 36%- Eurasian Union


One finger thick asphalt:

150 meters of a road in the Varvareuca village in Moldova were paved with one finger asphalt layer. Locals reported that the asphalt can be taken out with the hand. The company in charge already promised to repair the road with its own money. The road reparation was part of the bigger project of the Moldovan Democrats on the village roads.


80/270: Moldova’s Parliament recently approved the agreement on the 80 million euros loan from the EBRD for the electricity interconnection with Romania. The project containing a BtB station in Vulcănești, a 400kV line between Vulcănești and Chișinău, the expansion of the station in Chișinău and the extension of the Vulcănești station to 400 kV.

The investment, partly covered by EIB, EBRD, WB loans and an EU grant, will cost 270 million euros and is expected to be recovered from the transport tariff.


1032,9 minutes: That’s how much time a truck spends on average at the most crowded and most used border checkpoints of Moldova, reads a “Moldova’s trade corridors assessment” report concluded by Nathan Associates and financed by the USAID.

The report shows that the 90% of Moldova’s goods exports rely on the road infrastructure and road transport.  Leușeni-Albița checkpoint at the Moldovan-Romanian border accounts for 23% of the total crossings by delivery trucks. Although recognizing Moldova’s favourable geographical position, the experts underlined that the country lacks transportation and logistics infrastructure that would foster the trade, especially through the Romanian border- where the biggest trade barriers are found. The average waiting time for trucks crossing from Moldova to Romania can be even 16 times longer than in other 23 EU-nonEU border crossings.

Number of trucks crossing the checkpoints

The key issues affecting Moldova’s trade corridors are reported to be: Poor and insufficient infrastructure, Trade facilitation and border delays, Asymmetrical information in markets and lack of information systems, Lack of affordable and sustainable financing.

The authors of the report recommend the following solutions for ensuring the development of Moldova’s trade corridors:

1. Improving the Logistics Sector’s Institutional Effectiveness
2. Ensuring Supportive Policies and Legislative and Regulatory Frameworks
3. Improving Trade Facilitation
4. Developing Efficient and Productive Infrastructure
5. Providing an Efficient Transport Logistics System
6. Facilitating Sustainable Financing
7. Logistics Sector Promotion

We obtained a copy of the report summary.


Rise of illiberal civil society in the former Soviet Union? 

A report of the UK-based Foreign Policy Centre shows a significant of the so-called “illiberal” civil society groups in countries like Moldova.

The pieces on Moldova reveal the groups of “illiberal” thinking:  the far right, conservative groups and the Church, but also the socially conservative (at least, publicly recognized) parties such as the Socialists’ Party.

The authors of the report recommend the respective authorities to:

  • Take urgent measures to tackle corruption and improve transparency;
  •  Investigate attacks on minorities and scrap any partnerships with nationalist groups involved;
  • Protect the ability of liberal civil society groups to operate freely without intimidation;
  • Disband any armed militias affiliated to political parties or extremist groups.

At the same time, the authors argue that the international community should:

  • Increase political pressure and sanctions on the activities of ostensible ‘pro-European’ or ‘liberal’
    allies whose corruption or malpractice brings such principles into disrepute;
  • Insist on action to tackle hate crimes and offer greater support and resources to do so if political
    willingness to act can be ensured;
  • Look for opportunities for diplomatic dialogue with the dominant religious institutions;
  • Continue to refine and improve ‘myth-busting’ and anti-propaganda responses;
  • Support efforts to improve survey and research data about illiberal civil society attitudes;
  • Work with liberal minded NGOs to  find new ways to engage the ‘movable middle’.

56: Moldova’s Security and Intelligence Service has identified 56 Moldovan citizens who had been or are working as mercenaries in Eastern Ukraine since the start of the conflict in 2014.


Kozak is back: Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Kozak was earlier in the month appointed as the Russian

presidential special representative for developing trade and economic relations with Moldova.

“I hope that he [Kozak] – with his expertise – will be capable of promoting our cooperation substantially,” Putin told Dodon, as quoted by TASS.

Dmitry Kozak is known for his role as a special envoy to Moldova in early 2000s on the Transnistrian issue. Back in 2003, Kozak tried to conclude a memorandum that would define a political settlement to the Transnistrian conflict, a settlement including the federalization of Moldova, seen with high skepticism from Chișinău and the entire right bank.


ECtHR: Russia found guilty of violating rights to property, remedy of 1646 landowners and 3 companies in Transnistria, Moldova

ECtHR: Russia found guilty of violating rights to property, remedy of 1646 landowners and 3 companies in Transnistria, Moldova


ECtHR: Russia guilty of ill-treatment, poor detention conditions of 5 Moldova policemen in Transnistria

ECtHR: Russia guilty of ill-treatment, poor detention conditions of 5 Moldova policemen in Transnistria


“Neutral” number plates for Transnistrian cars: The Moldovan Parliament adopted in the first reading the law on the registration of Transnistrian cars in Moldova. Without paying an import tax, the Transnistrian residents will be able to travel internationally with the help of the so-called “neutral” number plates. They don’t look very neutral though:

Over and out!

https://gov.md/ro/content/reprezentantii-chisinaului-comisia-unificata-de-control-insista-pe-eliminare

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Weekly Roundup: Protests continue in Chișinău, IMF’s third tranche, and NATO’s done with Soviet pesticides

Just a banner from a protest in Chișinău, 1 July 2018

1 July 2018- Here’s another Weekly Roundup. Protests again in Chișinău and many other things…


“Let’s stop the dictator!”: Hundreds of protesters gathered in the Great National Assembly Square on Sunday. They asked for the validation of the results of Chișinău mayor elections, suggesting that the oligarch Vlad Plahotniuc, obviously bothered by Năstase’s win, influenced the judicial decision. On June 29th, the Central Electoral Commission took the decision to invalidate the results, after Moldova’s Supreme Court annulled the results.

The initial invalidation decision was a claim that 3 Facebook live videos posted by Năstase on election day and calling people to vote allegedly influenced the results.

The protesters were creative on Sunday’s protest too. Sometimes, sadly creative:


“It’s much more profitable for him to victimize himself”- Moldova’s PM Pavel Filip about mayor-elect-not-validated Andrei Năstase (Washington Post).


DW is attempting to call the current protests Moldova’s Maidan. The leader of the protest movement, Andrei Năstase, is denying this designation, underlining the importance of peaceful means of political protesting.


Here’s Atlantic Council with a bunch of opinions on what’s this protest-thingy is all about for Moldova.


Moldova’s Democratic Façade Crumbles as Supreme Court Invalidates Democratic Election: Mihai Popșoi argues for Jamestown Foundation that Plahotniuc’s smokes and mirrors (read: PR and lobby done outside Moldova) used to hide his anti-democratic techniques might take Moldova back into Russia’s orbit, eventually.


Mogherini and Hahn: We expect the Moldovan authorities to take measures ensuring Chișinău election results are respected

According to Mogherini and Hahh, the “non-transparent invalidation of the mayoral elections in Chișinău”, confirmed by Moldova’s Supreme Court on June 25th, “deprives the people of Chișinău of their democratically-elected mayor, Mr. Andrei Năstase(…)”.

The EU officials are asking the Moldovan authorities to take “appropriate measures” to ensure the election results are respected.
(…)we expect the Moldovan authorities to take appropriate measures to ensure that the results of the Chisinau mayoral elections, as recognised also by national and international observers and reflecting the will of the voters, are respected.

Скузаци, вэ рог: The European Commission’s President has apologized after the phrase ‘Moldovan language’ appeared on its website- calling it a “regrettable administrative error”.

Last month, in the section on the Consultation on the Future of Europe, an option allowed readers to select their preferred language of use – including “Romanian language/Moldovan language”. The Romanian vice-president of the European Parliament’s Committee on Foreign Affairs, Andi Cristea, called for the error to be repaired as soon as possible. If only Cristea was more strict with his S&D colleagues, the Moldovan Democrats, as he is with linguistic matters…


“I was informed about fabricated penal charges”: The statement belongs to the UN Human Rights Council expert, Michel Forst, during his visit to the Republic of Moldova. Forst called on the authorities to stop intimidating the human rights defenders and the civil society representatives.


$33,8 million: The IMF approved the review for a new (third in the current programme) disbursement for Moldova.

…the 2018 budget amendment accommodates priority infrastructure needs and other social assistance, consistent with program objectives. Priority spending should be protected, the wage bill should be contained relative to GDP, and budget overruns ahead of the elections should be avoided. (Tao Zhang, Deputy Managing Director and Acting Chair of the IMF Executive Board)

The ECF/EFF arrangements in a total amount of SDR 129,4 million (about US$178,7 million, or 75% of the Republic of Moldova’s quota).


“Transnistria made the first profit from cryptocurrency”: The first mining capacity has already started working, and the government has received its first revenues, prime-minister of the separatist region Alexandr Martynov declared. According to Intellnews, there are multiple sources of revenues: the taxes charged to companies carrying out blockchain mining operations, but also the price of the gas used by the Cuciurgan plant. The latter is reportedly used at its maximum capacity.


1269 tons of Soviet-era chemicals were collected and transported from Moldova for destruction in Poland, with NATO’s support. On 28 June 2018, a NATO-sponsored project focused on the disposal of pesticides and dangerous chemicals in the Republic of Moldova ended.

The last batch of 31 tons of pesticides collected from Sîngerei, Drochia, Edineț districts and Bălţi Municipality were evacuated on the last day from the regional central warehouse from Alexandreni village.

The total cost of the project was 2,2 million euros, covered through a NATO Trust Fund.


Moldovan Church Sidelines Priest In Spat Over LGBT Support: Ghidighici-based priest, Maxim Melinti, was relegated to the role of spectator by the Moldovan Orthodox Church, which banned him indefinitely from officiating services as of June 21, alleging he was “promoting and encouraging sexual minorities and contributing to the development of the LGBT movement in the Republic of Moldova.”

“In me, many have found the man who will understand them and treat them with respect. I do not judge anyone, I just help people get to Christ”, he told reporters at a press conference on June 26. (Radio Free Europe)


Over and out. Come by next week!

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Weekly Roundup: Facebook Live’s influence on election results, UNGA adopts Moldovan resolution, Democrat ambassador to the US

"Stolen vote"

It’s a new Weekly Roundup here, at Moldova.org. How much does it influence your opinion?


Facebook Live and independent Moldovan judges: 

The Central branch of the Chișinău court didn’t validate the results of the recent mayoral elections in Moldova’s capital. Thus, the mandate of the mayor-elect Andrei Năstase (won by 52,57% in the 2nd round) was not validated.

Mayor-elect Andrei Năstase

The Chișinău court decision was based on a claim that 3 Facebook live videos posted by Năstase on election day and calling people to vote allegedly influenced the results. The court decided to annul the results based on a complaint filed by the Socialists’ Party, but later even Năstase’s former opponent Ion Ceban declared he wanted the court “just to notice some violations”, not to completely cancel the election results. Despite large protests in the Moldovan capital, the Chișinău Appeal Court maintained the decision of the lower court.

Sunday saw another day of large protests, with more young voters and more innovative slogans coming here and there. The protesters are waiting for Moldova’s Supreme Court of Justice to have its last word, and they showed signs of willing to protests if their democratic will is not heard or “obstructed by political influence” (hint: Democratic Party of Moldova- PDM).

Radio Free Europe has a video of the protesting crowd:

Our Ana Gherciu has some photos of people’s slogans today:

“The face of a disappointed person”

“Sorry, we don’t produce as much as you steal!”

“The people are not like a cow: you milk, it stays silent”

“Today I am in the sun so that he stays at cold” (implied “in the prison”)

Slogans and posters aside, the real questions are not even how much Facebook LIVE videos can influence voting preferences, but something else: How independent is the Moldovan justice system? How desperate are those canceling election results with the help of judges?


Meanwhile, the EU and the US are closely monitoring the judicial process around the Chișinău mayoral election results.


UN General Assembly adopts Moldova’s resolution on withdrawal of “foreign military forces” from its territory:

The resolution calls on the UN Member States to urge the Russian Federation to “complete orderly, unconditionally and without further delay the withdrawal of the Russian Operational Group of Russian Forces” (more commonly known as OGRT or OGRV), in accordance to its commitment agreed at the 1999 OSCE Istanbul Summit, but also the UN Charter. The Russian request to examine to take “no action” on Moldova’s resolution was rejected.

Put to vote, the resolution was adopted with a simple majority of 64 votes in favor, 15 against, and 83 abstentions.

Here’s how the voting went:

More about the resolution here.


Sham coincidences: On June 21st, the Russian Federation told the JCC that the military columns moving last week had the goal to increase security at the munition deposit in Colbasna (some 21 thousand tons of munitions are still stored there since Soviet times) in the wake of possible “terrorist acts and provocative actions” during the World Cup. The JCC could not approve the weekly security report because of disagreement over attaching video proof of the columns to the documents.

22 June, 11 am, NYC time- The UN General Assembly adopts the resolution on the withdrawal of Russian troops- the so-called OGRT- stationed in the Transnistrian region of Moldova.

23 June, 4.00 am to 1.15 pm: Four columns of military vehicles were spotted moving unannounced on the Dubăsari-Grigoriopol-Tiraspol road. Back from Colbasna, apparently.

According to Chișinău, approximately 11 TABs and 25 trucks (URAL, ZIL, UAZ) were moving on the road without any symbols of belonging to either the OGRT or the peacekeeping mission, with number plates missing. Moreover, the columns were accompanied by the Transnistrian “special police forces”.

The Moldovan delegation managed to gather military observers from all the peacekeeping parties. When asked to stop, the military vehicles reportedly did not react in any way.

So, did the World Cup end already? 🙂

Moldova.org is following the case with the OSCE Mission to Moldova, as well.


New Ambassador to the US, now in a “Democrat VP” shape!

Moldova’s new Ambassador to the United States, H.E. Cristina Balan, recently presented the accreditation letter to POTUS, Donald Trump.

Oval Office – Credentialing Ceremony for Newly Appointed Ambassadors to the US Cristina Balan

More skilled in the business sector, Balan has come into the diplomatic mission as a result of the nomination of her party, PDM.

Balan himself is the Vice-President of the Moldovan Democrats and is known to be the right-hand of oligarch Vlad Plahotniuc in handling foreign affairs.

More on her profile:

Democrat VP Cristina Balan nominated as Moldova Ambassador to the US


New US Ambassador to Moldova coming soon:

President Donald J. Trump announced his intent to nominate Derek J. Hogan of Virginia as US Ambassador to the Republic of Moldova. Rumor says that current Ambassador James D. Pettit is going to retire, needing a replacement.

 While it was hard to find a picture of the future Ambassador to Moldova, it was much easier to find a description of his career:

Mr. Derek J. Hogan, a career member of the Senior Foreign Service, class of Counselor, has served as an American diplomat since 1997.  He is currently Deputy Executive Secretary of the United States Department of State, a position he has held since 2017.  Mr. Hogan is one of the Department of State’s experts on Eastern Europe, having served five tours working in or on Eastern Europe, including Russia.  He has held senior leadership positions both at United States missions overseas and domestically for the Department of State.  Mr. Hogan most recent overseas tours – as Chargé d’affaires and Deputy Chief of Mission in Azerbaijan from 2013 to 2016 and as the Department of State Representative on the civilian-military Provincial Reconstruction Teams in Southern (Uruzgan Province) and Eastern (Kunar Province) Afghanistan from 2008 to 2009 – have demonstrated that he possesses the leadership, management, innovation, and communication abilities needed to succeed in complex operating environments.  Mr. Hogan earned a B.A. from the University of Pittsburgh and a M.P.A. from Princeton University’s Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs.  He is the recipient of multiple Superior and Meritorious Honor Awards from the Department of State.  Mr. Hogan speaks Russian and Spanish.

We will miss H.E. Pettit for his sharp honesty.


“Energetic” Moldovan-Russian-Romanian spy: Russian news reports say an executive with energy holding

company Inter RAO has been arrested and charged with spying for an unnamed foreign country. The executive is Karina Turcan, a Moldovan national, who is accused by Russian FSB for spying for the Romanian intelligence.

Turcan oversaw electricity trades in parts of Eastern Europe, including Moldova, reports Radio Free Europe and Rosbalt.


MoldovaAgroindbank slice goes to the EBRD: The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) said it would take part, together with two private equity firms, Invalda and Horizon Capital, in an auction to buy a 41,09 percent stake in Moldova’s largest commercial bank, Moldova Agroindbank. (Reuters)


Over and out.

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